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sexta-feira, 23 de setembro de 2011

Impacts of the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and KPg Extinction on Mammal Diversification

  1. Robert W. Meredith1,*,
  2. Jan E. Janecka2,*,
  3. John Gatesy1,
  4. Oliver A. Ryder3,
  5. Colleen A. Fisher2,
  6. Emma C. Teeling4,
  7. Alisha Goodbla4,
  8. Eduardo Eizirik5,
  9. Taiz L. L. Simão5,
  10. Tanja Stadler6,
  11. Daniel L. Rabosky7,
  12. Rodney L. Honeycutt8,
  13. John J. Flynn9,10,
  14. Colleen M. Ingram9,
  15. Cynthia Steiner3,
  16. Tiffani L. Williams11,
  17. Terence J. Robinson12,
  18. Angela Burk-Herrick1,13,
  19. Michael Westerman14,
  20. Nadia A. Ayoub1,15,
  21. Mark S. Springer1,*,
  22. William J. Murphy2,*
+ Author Affiliations
  1. 1Department of Biology, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521, USA.
  2. 2Department of Veterinary Integrative Biosciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
  3. 3San Diego Zoo's Institute for Conservation Research, Escondido, CA 92027, USA.
  4. 4UCD School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
  5. 5Faculdade de Biociências, PUCRS, Porto Alegre, RS 90619–900, Brazil.
  6. 6Institut für Integrative Biologie, Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
  7. 7Department of Integrative Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
  8. 8Division of Natural Science, Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA 90263, USA.
  9. 9Division of Paleontology and Sackler Institute of Comparative Genomics, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA.
  10. 10Richard Glider Graduate School, American Museum of Natural History, New York, NY 10024, USA.
  11. 11Department of Computer Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.
  12. 12Department of Botany and Zoology, University of Stellenbosch, Matieland 7602, South Africa.
  13. 13Chaffey College, Rancho Cucamonga, CA 91737, USA.
  14. 14Genetics Department, LaTrobe University, Bundoora, Victoria 3086, Australia.
  15. 15Department of Biology, Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA 24450, USA.
  1. To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: mark.springer@ucr.edu (M.S.S.); wmurphy@cvm.tamu.edu (W.J.M.)

Abstract

Previous analyses of relations, divergence times, and diversification patterns among extant mammalian families have relied on supertree methods and local molecular clocks. We constructed a molecular supermatrix for mammalian families and analyzed these data with likelihood-based methods and relaxed molecular clocks. Phylogenetic analyses resulted in a robust phylogeny with better resolution than phylogenies from supertree methods. Relaxed clock analyses support the long-fuse model of diversification and highlight the importance of including multiple fossil calibrations that are spread across the tree. Molecular timetrees and diversification analyses suggest important roles for the Cretaceous Terrestrial Revolution and Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction in opening up ecospace that promoted interordinal and intraordinal diversification, respectively. By contrast, diversification analyses provide no support for the Eocene delayed rise of present-day mammals hypothesis.

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