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  • Acknowledgements

    T.C. is supported by CNRS-INSU. Funding from LEFE-IMAGO CNRS INSU project SeaSalt is acknowledged. T.C. was partly supported by the ‘Laboratoire d’Excellence’ LabexMER (ANR-10-LABX-19) and co-funded by a grant from the French government under the program ‘Investissements d’Avenir’, and by a grant from the Regional Council of Brittany (SAD programme). J.A.C. acknowledges funding from the ERC project ‘STEEPClim’. E.S. and L.D. acknowledge funding through the DFG Research Center/Cluster of Excellence ‘The Ocean in the Earth System’ at MARUM – Center for Environmental Sciences. A.S. acknowledges funding through the LaScArBx, a programme supported by the Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR-10-LABX-52). C.G.-C. was supported by CREST (grant number JPMJCR12A3; P.I. SLS) funded by the Japan Science and Technology (JST). Core MD96-2048 was collected during the MOZAPHARE cruise of the RV Marion Dufresne, supported by the French agencies Ministère de l’Education Nationale de la Recherche et de la Technologie, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) and Institut Paul Emile Victor (IPEV).
    Reviewer informationNature thanks C. O’Brien, M. Petraglia, K. Uno and the other anonymous reviewer(s) for their contribution to the peer review of this work.

    Author information


    1. EPOC, UMR 5805, CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Pessac, France

      • Thibaut Caley
      • , Thomas Extier
      • , Bruno Malaizé
      • , Linda Rossignol
      • , Frédérique Eynaud
      • , Philippe Martinez
      • , Karine Charlier
      • , Mélanie Wary
      • , Pierre-Yves Gourves
      • , Isabelle Billy
      •  & Jacques Giraudeau
    2. Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l’Environnement, LSCE/IPSL, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, Université Paris-Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette, France

      • Thomas Extier
      •  & Didier M. Roche
    3. GFZ – German Research Center for Geosciences, Section 5.1 Geomorphology, Organic Surface Geochemistry Laboratory, Potsdam, Germany

      • James A. Collins
    4. Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven, Germany

      • James A. Collins
    5. MARUM – Center for Marine Environmental Sciences, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany

      • Enno Schefuß
      •  & Lydie Dupont
    6. PACEA, UMR 5199, CNRS, University of Bordeaux, Pessac, France

      • Antoine Souron
    7. Department of Geography, Durham University, Durham, UK

      • Erin L. McClymont
    8. Department of Biogeochemistry (JAMSTEC), Yokosuka, Japan

      • Francisco J. Jimenez-Espejo
    9. Research and Development Center for Global Change, (JAMSTEC), Yokohama, Japan

      • Carmen García-Comas
    10. Ecology Group, University of Vic – Central University of Catalonia, Barcelona, Spain

      • Carmen García-Comas
    11. Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Faculty of Science, Cluster Earth and Climate, Amsterdam, The Netherlands

      • Didier M. Roche
    12. Unité Géosciences Marines, Institut Français de Recherche pour l’Exploitation de la Mer (IFREMER), Plouzané, France

      • Stephan J. Jorry


    T.C. designed the study. T.C., T.E., M.W. and P.-Y.G. performed the Mg/Ca measurements. L.R. analysed the foraminifera assemblages, and T.C. and F.E. analysed the results and performed the transfer function. T.C., T.E., B.M. and K.C. performed the δ18O analyses on foraminifera. T.C., J.G., P.M. and I.B. performed the XRF measurements and F.J.J.-E. and C.G.-C. conducted the statistical analyses on XRF. J.A.C. and E.S. performed plant-wax δD and δ13C analyses. L.D. performed the pollen analysis. A.S. and T.C. produced the synthesis on the ecology and environments of South African hominins and conducted the comparisons to the marine record. T.C. and D.M.R. performed and analysed the iLOVECLIM model results. T.C. analysed the results and all authors participated in the interpretation. T.C. wrote the manuscript with contributions from all authors.

    Competing interests

    The authors declare no competing interests.

    Corresponding author

    Correspondence to Thibaut Caley.