terça-feira, 16 de janeiro de 2018

National Geographic: Big Cats - An Amazing Animal Family
National Geographic: Dinastia Felina





[imdb]

Áudio  :br:

Citação
This is the story of one of the most successful family of predators on Earth—cats—and their epic rise to power. In this series, zoologist Patrick Aryee journeys around the world to some of the planet’s wildest places, unearthing the cat family’s wide and diverse family tree. From the majestic Siberian tiger, to the agile, tree-dwelling margay, we will see a rich variety of cat shapes, colours, and sizes. Today, there are some 37 different species of cats spanning jungle, mountains, deserts, and grasslands. They can jump higher, run faster, and climb better most groups of animals on Earth. Big Cats will reveal the amazing stories of how some of the most powerful cat dynasties came to be.


Parte 01

Patrick começa sua busca com as famílias mais antigas das oito dinastias. Viajamos para as selvas da Tailândia para conhecer o felino mais velho vivo no planeta, o misterioso leopardo-nebuloso.
Parte 02

Oito milhões de anos atrás os felinos se aventuraram nas Américas pela primeira vez. Para conquistar este vasto, novo e enorme continente eles se dividiram em três novas dinastias.


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Parte - 01

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segunda-feira, 15 de janeiro de 2018

Por que uma lei suíça quer proibir chefs de cozinhar lagostas vivas no país

13 Jan 2018
(atualizado 15/Jan 10h10)

Medida passa a vigorar a partir de março e também vale para outros crustáceos como caranguejos; país segue a Itália que também proibiu armazenamento do animal vivo em gel.

Foto: Tim Wimborne/Reuters
Lagosta
Lagostas não poderão ser mantidas em gelo para serem cozinhadas vivas
 A Suíça passou na quarta-feira (10) lei que proíbe restaurantes de preparar lagostas e outros crustáceos usando como técnica o cozimento em água fervente enquanto os animais ainda estão vivos. De acordo com a nova regra do país europeu, crustáceos deverão ser atordoados antes de ir para a panela.

A legislação ainda vai além e proíbe o transporte dos animais em gelo. “Espécies aquáticas devem sempre ser mantidas em seus ambientes naturais”, diz a lei que passa a valer a partir de março deste ano.

Essa última medida acompanha determinação da justiça italiana, de julho de 2017, que decidiu a favor de um grupo de proteção aos animais local contra um restaurante de Florença que mantinha lagostas vivas no gelo até o momento de serem cozinhadas.

“Enquanto o particular método de cozimento possa ser considerado legal por ser reconhecido como um costume, o sofrimento causado pelo armazenamento dos animais enquanto eles esperam para ser cozinhados não pode ser justificado da mesma forma”, apontou o juiz italiano. Como alternativa, aponta práticas já adotadas por restaurantes e supermercados de manter os animais em tanques de água oxigenados em temperatura ambiente.

Quanto à Suíça, de acordo com informações da rede pública local RTS, a nova lei exige que o atordoamento do animal seja feito por meio de choques ou “destruição mecânica” do cérebro do crustáceo.

Entre as razões apontadas para a prática de se cozinhar crustáceos vivos, há explicações que recaem sobre a textura e o sabor da carne do animal. Para o professor titular do departamento de zoologia da Unesp (Universidade Estadual Paulista), Adilson Fransozo, a explicação seria apenas um costume culinário motivado pela intenção de restaurantes em mostrar ao cliente que o produto preparado se trata de um animal fresco.

“Cozinhar o animal vivo é pura crueldade. Não tem razão para isso. Tanto é que a lagosta que o Brasil exporta, vai a parte do abdômen no gelo. O resto é jogado fora porque é tudo víscera. A prática da água quente é puro costume e ignorância”, diz ao Nexo.

Pacote animal

A lei suíça sobre os crustáceos vem acompanhada de um “pacote” que envolve outras leis que fortalecem a proteção animal no país. Além dela, o governo proibiu também a venda e uso de coleiras que soltam choque em cachorros visando condicioná-los a não latir, ou ainda regulações contra fazendas de criação de filhotes de cães e endurecimento de regras contra quem faz uso de animais em eventos públicos, como circos.

Contra sofrimento

Medidas contra o sofrimento de crustáceos são uma demanda de grupos de defesa de animais, como a Peta (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals). Entre os argumentos, está o de que existem regulamentações que protegem outros animais como pássaros, mamíferos e répteis, mas não para crustáceos como lagostas e caranguejos.
“A pergunta que fica é: qual a diferença?”, disse o professor Robert Elwood, da Queens University, da Irlanda do Norte, à CNN. “Com todas as informações que temos, é muito certo que esses animais também sentem dor”. Elwood é um dos responsáveis por uma pesquisa, publicada em 2013 pelo periódico científico Journal of Experimental Biology que apontava para essa possibilidade.
Em um experimento, pesquisadores constataram que caranguejos-verde optavam repetidamente por abandonar abrigos escuros – ambiente preferido pela espécie – para não sofrerem choques dados pela equipe de Elwood.

sexta-feira, 29 de dezembro de 2017

Progressions- Evolution of Life

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadweard_Muybridge#Stanford_and_horse_gaits
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eadweard_Muybridge#Stanford_and_horse_gaits
In 1878 the above sequence of images was taken by Eadweard Muybridge to settle a debate among horse racers--when a horse was galloping full speed, did they ever have all four legs off the ground?  The human eye alone was not fast enough to resolve the dispute.  Muybridge, the photographer who was called in, set up a sequence of cameras that would be set off by trip wires and found that horses are in fact completely air born at certain points within a full gallop. (Watch the video of this horse here.)
Based on these images alone, though, how do we know that the horse was actually running?  Couldn't the pictures have been of different horses?  Couldn't they have been jumping and not running?  This is more than just a thought experiment.  We're asking if it's justified to tie different pieces of information together to form a progression, just like we do in evolution.  Below we will explore several examples of biological progressions and ask what evidence there is that they represent evolutionary change over time.
Progressions copy
Claim: Species have changed over time--descent with modification
Prediction: If evolution is true and species have changed over time, then we would expect there to be examples of this preserved in rock strata, across geography, in a lab, or in recorded history.
Falsification: Progressions of change across time do not exist.  Species are shown to be unchangeable.
Observations:  Fossil progressions, microevolution, biogeography (see examples below).
Corroboration: Dating techniques confirms the progression’s sequence. Multiple traits are held in common by the organisms showing relatedness.
Inference:  Provided with this gradual gradation in a trait we can infer that the species are related (though not necessarily direct descendants--evolution tends to meander).
Examples:
  • Fossil progressions
    • The fossil record demonstrates not only large scale changes across time, phyla, but also within individual species.   Three particularly important features are represented within the fossil record.  Firstly, the species represented within the fossil record are often vastly different from the life of today.  Secondly, is that the the fossils are separately and distinctly layered.  Meaning, that we don’t find rabbit fossils in the Pre-Cambrian layers, nor dinosaurs mixed in with mammoths.  Lastly, both on the macro and micro scale of the fossil record we see trends of change that progress through time.
Whale evolution
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_03
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_03
evolution-of-whaleIndividual traits such as leg/pelvis position, nostril location, and ankle bones can also be traced back to the early artiodactyls that led to modern day whales.
http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/bio-home/harvey/lect/lectures.html?flnm=evel&ttl=Evolution&ccode=el&mda=scrn
http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/bio-home/harvey/lect/lectures.html?flnm=evel&ttl=Evolution&ccode=el&mda=scrn
http://tinyfrog.wordpress.com/2008/02/01/pz-myers-vs-geoffrey-simmons-discovery-institute/
http://tinyfrog.wordpress.com/2008/02/01/pz-myers-vs-geoffrey-simmons-discovery-institute/
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_03
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_03
This is another image showing the homology between ancient whale ancestors (Pakicetus) and modern day even-toed ungulates (like pig and deer).  Dogs were included on the far left as a contrast typical of non-even-toed ungulates. http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/160/160S13_5.html
This is another image showing the homology between ancient whale ancestors (Pakicetus) and modern day even-toed ungulates (like pig and deer). Dogs were included on the far left as a contrast typical of non-even-toed ungulates.
http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/160/160S13_5.html
   
http://scienceblogs.com/loom/2006/08/15/the-origin-of-the-ridiculous/
http://scienceblogs.com/loom/2006/08/15/the-origin-of-the-ridiculous/
http://coastalpaleo.blogspot.com/2009_04_01_archive.html
http://coastalpaleo.blogspot.com/2009_04_01_archive.html
http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2006/05/23/no-genes-were-lost-in-the-maki/
http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/2006/05/23/no-genes-were-lost-in-the-maki/
The transition from toothed whale to baleen whale also has left transition fossils. This can be seen in the pattern of blood vessels on the roof of Aetiocetus weltoni's mouth that are highly similar to those used today to nourish the areas that produce the keratin baleen.
http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2010/07/22/baleen-whales-a-lovely-transitional-form/ Original article: http://www.sdnhm.org/archive/research/paleontology/DemereMorphoBaleenTeeth.pdf
http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2010/07/22/baleen-whales-a-lovely-transitional-form/
Original article: http://www.sdnhm.org/archive/research/paleontology/DemereMorphoBaleenTeeth.pdf
  Horse
http://www.mberg.com.au/dietary-changes-and-the-evolution-of-the-horse/
http://www.mberg.com.au/dietary-changes-and-the-evolution-of-the-horse/
 
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_the_horse
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_the_horse
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_the_horse
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Evolution_of_the_horse
Tetrapod
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_02
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_02
We can even track individual traits, like skull bones and limb structure. http://www.earthhistory.org.uk/technical-issues/tiktaalik-roseae http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v440/n7085/full/nature04637.html Humans
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_07
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_07
http://media.hhmi.org/biointeractive/posters/2011%20human%20evolution.jpg
http://media.hhmi.org/biointeractive/posters/2011%20human%20evolution.jpg
 
http://distraffscience.blogspot.com/2012/03/overview-of-human-evolution.html
http://distraffscience.blogspot.com/2012/03/overview-of-human-evolution.html
   
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/adaptable-human.html
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/evolution/adaptable-human.html
http://anneminard.com/wp/2009/02/26/day-34-with-all-due-respect-atkins-carbs-helped-us-evolve/   http://boards.footymad.net/forum.php?tno=31&fid=466&sty=2&act=1&mid=2113951831
http://scienceblogs.com/laelaps/2007/10/23/troodon-sapiens-thoughts-on-th/
http://scienceblogs.com/laelaps/2007/10/23/troodon-sapiens-thoughts-on-th/
562805_517448765016152_1980667371_n
http://visual.ly/timeline-hominid-evolution
Notice the transition from long scapulas with oblique scapular spines good for arboreal climbing turned more horizontal as we began to climb and hang less. http://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=2860095_10764_2010_9399_Fig6_HTML&req=4http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6106/514.figures-onlyhttp://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6106/478.figures-only
Notice the transition from long scapulas with oblique scapular spines good for arboreal climbing turned more horizontal as we began to climb and hang less.
http://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=2860095_10764_2010_9399_Fig6_HTML&req=4http://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6106/514.figures-onlyhttp://www.sciencemag.org/content/338/6106/478.figures-only
  Bird
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_06
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_06
http://people.eku.edu/ritchisong/554notes1.html http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/03/4/image_pop/l_034_01.html
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v2/n8/full/ncomms1437.html
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v2/n8/full/ncomms1437.html
http://palaeoblog.blogspot.com/2008/10/gene-expression-in-alligators-suggests.html
http://palaeoblog.blogspot.com/2008/10/gene-expression-in-alligators-suggests.html
http://ncse.com/rncse/21/5-6/more-birds-dinosaurs
http://ncse.com/rncse/21/5-6/more-birds-dinosaurs
 
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/333/6049/1619.full
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/333/6049/1619.full
 
http://emilywilloughby.com/gallery/skeletals-and-diagrams/feather-evolution
http://emilywilloughby.com/gallery/skeletals-and-diagrams/feather-evolution
A common evolutionary strategy to change the phenotype of a species is to change the developmental progression that leads to that phenotype.  This diagram is showing how bird evolution progressed to have the adult phenotypes look like the juvenile phenotype of the ancestral species. http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2012/05/28/birds-may-be-paedomorphic-dinosaurs/ Also http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/05/science/skull-analysis-charts-the-changes-from-dinosaurs-to-birds.html?_r=0
A common evolutionary strategy to change the phenotype of a species is to change the developmental progression that leads to that phenotype. This diagram is showing how bird evolution progressed to have the adult phenotypes look like the juvenile phenotype of the ancestral species.
http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2012/05/28/birds-may-be-paedomorphic-dinosaurs/
Also
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/06/05/science/skull-analysis-charts-the-changes-from-dinosaurs-to-birds.html?_r=0
Brachiopods
http://www.pnas.org/content/105/14/5430.figures-only
http://www.pnas.org/content/105/14/5430.figures-only
http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/creation/eocoelia.html
http://www.don-lindsay-archive.org/creation/eocoelia.html
Diatom
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4096816?origin=JSTOR-pdf
http://www.jstor.org/stable/4096816?origin=JSTOR-pdf
See pictures of diatom spines and valves to better understand what this graph represents: http://westerndiatoms.colorado.edu/taxa/species/stephanodiscus_yellowstonensis
Foraminifera
http://www.ucl.ac.uk/EarthSci/people/d-price/WebImagesPages/Lagen.htm More: http://www.geo.uni-bremen.de/geochronologie/projects/Christian_PETM.htm http://www.nature.com/srep/2013/130313/srep01438/fig_tab/srep01438_F1.html http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v493/n7432/full/nature11815.html
mammal ear bone evolution
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/evograms_05
 
http://daphne.palomar.edu/ccarpenter/reptile%20to%20mammals.htm
http://daphne.palomar.edu/ccarpenter/reptile%20to%20mammals.htm
Trilobites
 http://www.evolution-textbook.org/content/free/figures/03_EVOW_Art/13_EVOW_CH03.jpg
Turtles
Read more: http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2013/06/04/more-about-turtles/ Other resources: http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2013/06/02/turtle-origins/ And http://www.elsevier.com/connect/how-the-turtle-got-its-shell-clues-revealed-by-fossils
Read more: http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2013/06/04/more-about-turtles/
Other resources:
http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2013/06/02/turtle-origins/
And
http://www.elsevier.com/connect/how-the-turtle-got-its-shell-clues-revealed-by-fossils
Elephant
http://perlacopernik.wordpress.com/2012/08/11/the-mighty-elephant-the-real-king-of-the-savanna/
http://perlacopernik.wordpress.com/2012/08/11/the-mighty-elephant-the-real-king-of-the-savanna/
Also interesting:
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/334/6063/1699.figures-only
http://kozmopolitaydinlar.wordpress.com/2012/03/19/5508/fillerin-evrimi-2/
  http://scienceblogs.com/laelaps/2009/02/25/march-of-the-mastodons/     Microevolution - There have been many instances where the observed change within a species is fast enough that it can be tracked by researchers.  Extending these trend lines into the future we can see how major adaptive changes can add up over time. Soapberry bugs
http://www.evolution-textbook.org/content/free/figures/03_EVOW_Art/08_EVOW_CH03.jpg
http://www.evolution-textbook.org/content/free/figures/03_EVOW_Art/08_EVOW_CH03.jpg
Three-spine stickleback fish
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081010100457.htm
Summary: Put stickleback fish in a freshwater environment (they were transplants from salt water, but can survive in both) and over time they lose their protective, boney plates. They likely do so to conserve energy since their environment has different predatory pressures and less food during the winter.
http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/10/081010100457.htm
http://courseconnector.uoregon.edu/bi-131-intro-evolution
http://courseconnector.uoregon.edu/bi-131-intro-evolution
"Fig. 2. Evolution of lateral plate morph frequencies in Loberg lake between 1990 and 2007. Besides complete and low lateral plate morphs, we recognize three intermediate phenotypes described in Bell et al. (2004). These are "intermediate partials"(IP), partial morphs, and "intermediate lows"(IL). Notice that the frequency of the three intermediate phenotypes remained relatively low and constant throughout the time series." http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/ee/belllab/loberg.html
"Fig. 2. Evolution of lateral plate morph frequencies in Loberg lake between 1990 and 2007. Besides complete and low lateral plate morphs, we recognize three intermediate phenotypes described in Bell et al. (2004). These are "intermediate partials"(IP), partial morphs, and "intermediate lows"(IL). Notice that the frequency of the three intermediate phenotypes remained relatively low and constant throughout the time series."
http://life.bio.sunysb.edu/ee/belllab/loberg.html
Salmon

Pink salmon (Oncorhyncus gorbuscha) are getting smaller. Multiple reasons are possible but one is that fishermen have been consistently taking the largest, thus resulting in their reduced size through a form of artificial selection.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/10/3/l_103_02.html
Bacteria: Because of their short generation time, bacteria are excellent subjects to use for evolution experiments.  The longest running experiment is Richard Lenski's E. coli experiment. For some 60,000 generations the bacteria have been grown in a laboratory environment under controlled conditions and given very restrictive diets of sugars and nutrients.   At regular intervals the bacteria are sampled, frozen, and DNA sequenced.   Population growth, fitness, and body size are tracked over time.
http://www.evolution-textbook.org/content/free/figures/17_EVOW_Art/32_EVOW_CH17.jpg
http://www.evolution-textbook.org/content/free/figures/17_EVOW_Art/32_EVOW_CH17.jpg
Their average size also increase remarkably:
http://evolutionguide.wordpress.com/2011/11/10/the-best-of-the-lessons-of-evolution-the-longterm-e-coli-evolution-experiment/
http://evolutionguide.wordpress.com/2011/11/10/the-best-of-the-lessons-of-evolution-the-longterm-e-coli-evolution-experiment/
  One of the most exciting finds of the study was the explosion of growth in one strain of bacteria that had multiple mutations that enable them to digest citrate in the presence of oxygen.  This ability resulted in the doubling of their population within their beaker.
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7417/full/nature11514.html
http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v489/n7417/full/nature11514.html

http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2009/10/the-arc-of-evolutionary-genetics-is-long/#.UkBbn9Jwpft
http://evolutionguide.wordpress.com/2011/11/10/the-best-of-the-lessons-of-evolution-the-longterm-e-coli-evolution-experiment/
http://evolutionguide.wordpress.com/2011/11/10/the-best-of-the-lessons-of-evolution-the-longterm-e-coli-evolution-experiment/
  Flat periwinkle: The European green crab was introduced to the North Eastern coast of North America in the early 1800's.  These crabs started feeding on flat periwinkles by crushing them with their claws.  By comparing shells from museum specimens prior to the crab introduction to those of current day periwinkles a thickening of the shell was observed (conceivably due to the crab predation).  Subsequently, the natural selection process of thin shelled periwinkles was replicated in an experimental setting.

http://wps.prenhall.com/wps/media/objects/829/848975/EvoDotsTutorial.pdf
Samoan Blue Moon Butterfly (Hypolimnas bolina): A parasite common to arthropods called Wolbachia is passed through the female line in the egg.  To increase the parasite's chances of getting into the next generation of butterflies the parasite was killing off males.  This resulted in a drastically skewed population distribution with 99% of adults captured being female.  Over 4 years and 10 generations of butterfly the population re-established equilibrium with a 50:50 ratio of female to male.  Researchers believe this is due to the evolution of a repressor gene that inhibits the Wolbachia's biochemical attack. 

http://scienceblogs.com/grrlscientist/2007/07/16/samoan-butterflies-evolve-rapi/
Also:
http://www.livescience.com/1685-evolution-occurs-blink-eye.html
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/317/5835/214.full.pdf
http://www.sciencemag.org/content/317/5835/214.abstract
HIV: At this time the most common treatment for HIV are drug "cocktails," which are the combination of multiple drugs that combat HIV.  Isn't that a waste to use multiple drugs to fight one condition?  Not when evolution is taken into account.  HIV evolves incredibly fast for two reasons. 1) It's high population within a human, numbering far into the trillions per individual.  2) It's use of a error prone reverse transcriptase to copy its genes.  This essentially is the perfect storm of drug resistance evolution.  That being the case, the current strategy is to overwhelm the HIV virus making it necessary for it to evolve multiple adaptations at the same time--a feat that is difficult but not impossible and the drugs only currently delay the process of evolution.
http://www.bio.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/bio212/histevolth.html
http://www.bio.utexas.edu/faculty/sjasper/bio212/histevolth.html
Also:
http://scholar.harvard.edu/pennings/pages/hiv-drug-resistance
  Great lists of observed evolution events: http://www.wired.com/wiredscience/2008/12/evolutionexampl/ http://listverse.com/2011/11/19/8-examples-of-evolution-in-action/ http://phylointelligence.com/observed.html Artificial selection Dogs
http://www.macwebguru.com/2010/09/11/the-dog/
http://www.macwebguru.com/2010/09/11/the-dog/
http://annwyn.info/wolf/wolf23.html
http://annwyn.info/wolf/wolf23.html
Wild mustard
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIE4Evochange.shtml
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evosite/evo101/IIIE4Evochange.shtml
Corn
http://faculty.uca.edu/johnc/introdarwin.htm
http://faculty.uca.edu/johnc/introdarwin.htm
  Biogeography: Because migration can be difficult and take time, biogeography can spatial represent evolutionary change over time.  This phenomena is most obvious in 'ring species' that start spreading slowly over many generations around geographic obstacles, like mountain ranges. The population diverges into two as it spreads around the geographic obstacle and by the time the species meets again on the other side of the obstacle so much time, mutation, genetic drift, and selection has taken place that the two species can no longer interbreed.  Even more interesting is that the two separate species can interbreed with those geographically closest to them from the direction that they migrated. Ensatina salamander of California - The species spread from the north and traveled around the Central Valley and diverged into species that can not mate with each other in the south, due to their divergence, but can mate with the species in the direction that they migrated from.
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/devitt_02
http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/article/0_0_0/devitt_02
 The Greenish Warbler (Phylloscopus nitidus) historically spread around the Himalayas and can interbreed with those from the direction they spread but not those that long ago diverged from them and spread around the opposite side of the mountain range.

http://mappingignorance.org/2013/06/13/speciation-beyond-sexuality-critiques-to-the-biological-species-concept/ Updated genetics: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/05/140525154742.htm
The Larus Gulls of the Northern Hemisphere: Notice the darkening of the feathers in a clockwise direction starting at the bottom.  Gull species near each other can interbreed, except between the Herring Gull and the Lesser Black-Backed Gull that diverged from each other long the longest ago.  This inability to breed tells the story of how the species likely spread overtime around the world and met back up, now no longer able to interbreed.
 
http://darwiniana.org/zimmergulls.htm
http://darwiniana.org/zimmergulls.htm
 
When species are in a particular location for a long time, genetic diversity tends to go up as new mutations are added to the population.  When species migrate into new territories, genetic diversity tends to be low because those new areas are populated by a few individuals. One way of reading this diagram is a time scale.  The more genetic diversity in an area, the longer humans have lived there.  Darwin knew this and speculated that humans originated in Africa, since most great apes are native there. http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2011/04/16/where-on-earth-did-language-begin/
When species are in a particular location for a long time, genetic diversity tends to go up as new mutations are added to the population. When species migrate into new territories, genetic diversity tends to be low because those new areas are populated by a few individuals. One way of reading this diagram is a time scale. The more genetic diversity in an area, the longer humans have lived there. Darwin knew this and speculated that humans originated in Africa, since most great apes are native there.http://whyevolutionistrue.wordpress.com/2011/04/16/where-on-earth-did-language-begin/

Fonte: http://www.evolutionevidence.org/evidence/progressions/