sexta-feira, 23 de setembro de 2011

An Aboriginal Australian Genome Reveals Separate Human Dispersals into Asia

  1. Morten Rasmussen1,2,*,
  2. Xiaosen Guo2,3,*,
  3. Yong Wang4,*,
  4. Kirk E. Lohmueller4,*,
  5. Simon Rasmussen5,
  6. Anders Albrechtsen6,
  7. Line Skotte6,
  8. Stinus Lindgreen1,6,
  9. Mait Metspalu7,
  10. Thibaut Jombart8,
  11. Toomas Kivisild9,
  12. Weiwei Zhai10,
  13. Anders Eriksson11,
  14. Andrea Manica11,
  15. Ludovic Orlando1,
  16. Francisco De La Vega12,
  17. Silvana Tridico13,
  18. Ene Metspalu7,
  19. Kasper Nielsen5,
  20. María C. Ávila-Arcos1,
  21. J. Víctor Moreno-Mayar1,14,
  22. Craig Muller15,
  23. Joe Dortch16,
  24. M. Thomas P. Gilbert1,2,
  25. Ole Lund5,
  26. Agata Wesolowska5,
  27. Monika Karmin7,
  28. Lucy A. Weinert8,
  29. Bo Wang3,
  30. Jun Li3,
  31. Shuaishuai Tai3,
  32. Fei Xiao3,
  33. Tsunehiko Hanihara17,
  34. George van Driem18,
  35. Aashish R. Jha19,
  36. François-Xavier Ricaut20,
  37. Peter de Knijff21,
  38. Andrea B Migliano9,22,
  39. Irene Gallego-Romero19,
  40. Karsten Kristiansen2,3,6,
  41. David M. Lambert23,
  42. Søren Brunak5,24,
  43. Peter Forster25,26,
  44. Bernd Brinkmann26,
  45. Olaf Nehlich27,
  46. Michael Bunce13,
  47. Michael Richards27,28,
  48. Ramneek Gupta5,
  49. Carlos D. Bustamante12,
  50. Anders Krogh1,6,
  51. Robert A. Foley9,
  52. Marta M. Lahr9,
  53. Francois Balloux8,
  54. Thomas Sicheritz-Pontén5,29,
  55. Richard Villems7,30,
  56. Rasmus Nielsen4,6,,
  57. Wang Jun2,3,6,31,,
  58. Eske Willerslev1,2,
+ Author Affiliations
  1. 1Centre for GeoGenetics, Natural History Museum of Denmark, and Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark.
  2. 2Sino-Danish Genomics Center, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China, and University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
  3. 3Shenzhen Key Laboratory of Transomics Biotechnologies, BGI-Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518083, China.
  4. 4Departments of Integrative Biology and Statistics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
  5. 5Center for Biological Sequence Analysis, Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
  6. 6Department of Biology, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
  7. 7Department of Evolutionary Biology, Tartu University and Estonian Biocentre, 23 Riia Street, 510101 Tartu, Estonia.
  8. 8MRC Centre for Outbreak, Analysis and Modeling, Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College Faculty of Medicine, London W2 1PG, UK.
  9. 9Leverhulme Centre for Human Evolutionary Studies, Department of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 1QH, UK.
  10. 10Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 7 Beitucheng West Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100029, China.
  11. 11Evolutionary Ecology Group, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK
  12. 12Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.
  13. 13Ancient DNA Lab, School of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Murdoch University, Western Australia 6150, Australia.
  14. 14Undergraduate Program on Genomic Sciences, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Avenida Universidad s/n Chamilpa 62210, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.
  15. 15Goldfields Land and Sea Council Aboriginal Corporation, 14 Throssell Street, Kalgoorlie, Western Australia 6430, Australia.
  16. 16Department of Archaeology, University of Western Australia, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia.
  17. 17Department of Anatomy, Kitasato University School of Medicine, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Minami-ku, Sagamihara 252-0374, Japan.
  18. 18Institut für Sprachwissenschaft, Universität Bern, 3000 Bern 9, Switzerland.
  19. 19Department of Human Genetics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637, USA.
  20. 20Laboratoire d’Anthropologie Moléculaire et Imagerie de Synthèse, Université de Toulouse (Paul Sabatier)–CNRS UMR 5288, 31073 Toulouse Cedex 3, France.
  21. 21Department of Human and Clinical Genetics, Postzone S5-P, Leiden University Medical Center, 2333 ZA Leiden, Netherlands.
  22. 22Department of Anthropology, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.
  23. 23Griffith School of Environment and School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland 4111, Australia.
  24. 24Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Protein Research, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
  25. 25Murray Edwards College, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0DF, UK.
  26. 26Institute for Forensic Genetics, D-48161 Münster, Germany.
  27. 27Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
  28. 28Department of Anthropology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z1, Canada.
  29. 29Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby, Denmark.
  30. 30Estonian Academy of Sciences, 6 Kohtu Street, 10130 Tallinn, Estonia.
  31. 31Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Basic Metabolic Research, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
  1. To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: (E.W.); (W.J.); (R.N.)
  1. * These authors contributed equally to this work.


We present an Aboriginal Australian genomic sequence obtained from a 100-year-old lock of hair donated by an Aboriginal man from southern Western Australia in the early 20th century. We detect no evidence of European admixture and estimate contamination levels to be below 0.5%. We show that Aboriginal Australians are descendants of an early human dispersal into eastern Asia, possibly 62,000 to 75,000 years ago. This dispersal is separate from the one that gave rise to modern Asians 25,000 to 38,000 years ago. We also find evidence of gene flow between populations of the two dispersal waves prior to the divergence of Native Americans from modern Asian ancestors. Our findings support the hypothesis that present-day Aboriginal Australians descend from the earliest humans to occupy Australia, likely representing one of the oldest continuous populations outside Africa.
  • Received for publication 14 July 2011.
  • Accepted for publication 13 September 2011.

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